INTRODUCTION TO GASTRONOMY
From the beginnings of man to the modern age, preparation and consumption of food has received, well deserved, attention. The first recorded scientific observations of food were recorded as early as the 4th century BC in Greece, in order to expand and become much more significant during the enlightenment period in the 17th and 18th centuries. Meanwhile, food science has developed a number of branches that have addressed its individual aspects of importance to humans – microbiology, canning, engineering, physics, safety, nutritional values, and so on.
There is evidence from the second century BC, stored in London, where an equation is written on papyrus that says fermented meat is lighter than fresh meat and since then many scientists have been interested in food and cooking processes. The funds are mentioned for the first time in the fourth century B.C. while recipes for the preparation of concentrated funds have been elaborated in detail over the centuries.
THE CONCEPT OF GASTRONOMY
In the dictionaries of different foreign languages, the word gastronomy (from the Greek roots gaster = stomach and nomos = law) is defined as the art of beautifully consuming food, culinary methods of preparing food, cooking, learning about food, enjoying cooking, thermal processing, etc.
In 1801., the word gastronomy appeared in the title of the literary work La Gastronomieoul’Homme des champs a table, by Joseph Berchoux.
Savarin defines gastronomy as “the starting point, that is, everything related to human nutrition and its goal is to contribute to human well-being through the best food, and this also applies to the application of food, supplies and preparation of foods that result in enveloping and inedible food to food.
Gastronomy can be defined as the science of the comprehensiveness of food, the evolution of nutrition, its qualities and its contents.
THE LINK BETWEEN SCIENCE AND GASTRONOMY
According to This, chemistry is central to us as human beings, that is what enables us to live. Chemists have become interested in the processes of food and its preparation since the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Not only chefs, gastronomists, but also famous scientists were involved in culinary science, such as Jean AntelmoBrilat-Savarin (1755-1826), a French lawyer, gastronomist and politician with numerous and varied interests, including chemistry, archaeology, astronomy and gourmet inspired him to write a book, which is still the subject of the study of The Psychology of Taste (La Physiologie du gout (1825)).
Inspired by Savarin’s culinary inspirations, generations are formed that will shape the flow of culinary art through the centuries, and which have contributed to culinary art, creating dishes, techniques and methods that are still practiced today. In addition to his great work, contributed to the culinary world by the Culinary Guide, which was published in 1921 and is still an inexhaustible inspiration and base for chefs around the world.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is perhaps best known to scientists, for he studied the processes of preparing funds and determined the quality by measuring density. His observation is well-known: “Whenever one thinks that there is no need to examine the most famous objects, the simplest things, and then one must prove that they are also vague and uncertain, and it is important to prove them by experiments and facts.”
Justus von Liebig (1852), as well as Count Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, who contributed to inventions such as the coffee machine.
Alexis Sawyer also played a major role, not only in the culinary world, where he was head of the Reform Club in London, but was also responsible for the preparation and care of the poor in 1845.
The culinary oeuvre, derived from the pen of this versatile chef, is not negligible, and the titles, which are still sold in large circulation, such as Gastronomic Regenerator (Soyer, 1846), Modern Housewife (Soyer, 1849), are distinguished. the most influential book on the history of the food Pantrofeon (Soyer, 1853), and a cook devoted to the economical aspect of cooking, “Shilling Cooking” (Soyer, 1854).
The reference to the preparation of food with the combination of chemical substances, such as liquid nitrogen, no matter how we think it is the invention of modern culinary art, dates back to 1885, where Marshall advised the preparation of instant ice cream using liquid nitrogen.
The molecular epithet was chosen to describe that changes are studied at the molecular level, all based on physics and chemistry, so the first name was “molecular and physical gastronomy”, but after Kurti’s death in 1998, This decided that shorten the name to molecular gastronomy, but with all credit to Professor Kurti. Some Chefs like other terms such as ‘techno-emotional cuisine’ and ‘experimental cuisine’.
Nicholas Kurti, a distinguished professor who taught physics at the University of Oxford, revolutionized when he gave a lecture in 1969. entitled “Physicist in the Kitchen” in front of the Royal Society, where he presented scientific problems and processes that they happen when cooking and preparing meals, where he then presented an experiment in which he prepared inverted baked Alaska in the microwave and amazed the audience.
When the name of the Chef of FerranAdrià is mentioned, the first association is genius. Although everyone identifies him with the term molecular gastronomy, or even more molecular cooking, he does not himself agree that he is a representative of that cuisine because he thinks the term is too simplistic for the gastronomic philosophy he represents. In order to create optimal taste stimulation, El Buli restaurant was not only a restaurant, but also an experimental and development centre of taste magic, which provides a unique experience. The Chef himself says that this was not a restaurant, given that there is no classification for it, but that it is just a space in time, where it is intended to have only one table in the future, because of direct communication between the creator and the consumer, for the ultimate taste.
For magic creation, Adriawas operating commercially for half a year, and has used the other half to develop new recipes, techniques and methods.The restaurant is now closed, due to its conception of Bulipedia.
It is quite possible that the European Organization of Molecular Gastronomy should be established soon, while the Associations exist in Argentina, Switzerland and Spain. Molecular gastronomy is most developed in France at the Alimentaira Foundation for Science and Culture, opened in 2006. by the French Academy of Sciences.
In addition to Herve This, scientific contributions to the verification of this science have been made by prominent physics professor Peter Berham of the University of Bristol and chemistry professor Thomas Wildis of the Max Planck Institute in Mainz.
Spanish chef SantiSantamari recently appeared in public, claiming that methyl cellulose (an agent used to make gelatinous masses, very popular in molecular cooking) can be dangerous to human health. Many reactions followed, for and against that, not only among chefs, but also among other experts and scholars. It is a fact that many additives and extracts such as calcium chloride and sodium alginate are used in molecular gastronomy, which makes many nervous. Specifically, the Italian government has recently banned the use of molecular gastronomy in culinary art on the pretext that Italian cuisine is based on tradition and that there is therefore not too much room for innovative approaches. On the other hand, accidents during the preparation of food in the midst of negligence, such as the explosion of liquid nitrogen during cooking, leaving the twenty-four-year-old German chef with both hands, create fear among its potential users.
Although molecular gastronomy is the most developed in Europe, it is still considered a new science. With the exception of a few PhDs, the lack of programs at Universities in Europe makes it still difficult to obtain a degree that would be closely related to this field only. In the United States, the Association of Chiefs Researchers has established the field of Culinology®, which combines equally nutritional technology and culinary arts.
When in 1988. extraordinary chemist Hervé This came up with the idea that the application of certain chemical substances would lead to visible changes in foods, the first idea of Molecular Gastronomy was born. The basics of Molecular Gastronomy are based on the application of physics and chemistry in the preparation of meals, but it is also shows influences like gravity, thermodynamics, biology. The most popular methods are: spherification, ionization, jellification, and change of the aggregate state. With the addition of chemical substances in the preparation of dishes such as sodium alginates, chlorides and carbonates, cooled and then formed in a bath of calcium lactate give a whole new taste to food. Agar-agar alters the consistency, soy lecithin structure, liquid nitrogen form…
By the method of spherification, that is, by adding sodium alginate, freezing, moulding in a bath of calcium lactate, it is very easy to obtain spherical forms, which resemble caviar. Although professional kitchen-labs are small with spectrometers, condensers, centrifugal machines, spherifiers and the like, representative molecular gastronomy is simple, interesting, the substances are safe and easy to handle, so they can be used by children.
This trend in modern gastronomy is a new trend in the world, which will help us to understand the processes during the preparation of food, how to optimally use all the nutrients, but also to make gastronomy a new epithet of fun discipline that applies science and makes it fun every day.
DEFINITION OF MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY
There has always been a lot of confusion between science and technology when it comes to food, including understanding what food is. Dictionaries provide a definition of food:
“Any substance that can be given to living beings by the elements necessary for their growth or for their conservation”. However, it must be acknowledged that human beings very rarely consume untransformed tissues or natural products; raw materials have already been transformed so that chemical and physical changes determine the final composition, as its “bioactivity” – a term we propose to describe sensory effects, nutritional value, possible toxic effects, and so on.
This adds that phrases such as ‘culinary science’ or ‘cooking science’ are misleading, strictly speaking unless the science is mentioned in the context of knowledge at all. Also, there are no “scientific” Chefs, although the term is increasingly encountered in the media.
The term molecular and physical gastronomy was chosen by This and Kurti on the basis of chemical and physical changes that occur during food processing, while the choice of the word “gastronomy” in this title is obvious: it does not mean high culinary, but only “a thorough knowledge of everything related to human nutrition”.
Molecular gastronomy is defined as: “In search of the phenomena of the mechanisms that occur during meal preparation and consumption”
During a survey in 2000, This came to the conclusion that each recipe had three parts:
- Useless technical part,
- Technical information added.
This last term describes information that is irrelevant during meal preparation (Christmas stories, proverbs, tips, methods, and so on). It also introduces the issue of social context, which is also very important, and all these facts have led to proposals for the future direction of the study and operation of molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline:
- To research “culinary definitions” scientifically;
- To collect and test technically-added information (“bap stories”);
- To research scientifically the artistic aspect of cooking;
- To scientifically explore the social aspect of cooking (This, 2004.).
The term molecular cuisine (or molecular cooking) was given in 1999. at the beginning of a European program called INICON. The definition of molecular cuisine is: “production of food, beverages and beverages using” new “tools, ingredients, methods, etc.”
FIVE GOALS OF MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY
In Herve This`s PhD thesis, Molecular and Physical Gastronomy at the University of Paris in 1996., five goals of this new science were identified:
- To gather and explore Bap’s cooking stories;
- To revise and study existing recipes;
- To introduce new cooking tools, products and methods;
- To create new dishes with the knowledge of the previous three goals and
- To use the attractiveness of dishes to promote science.
Of the original five goals, only the first two correspond to science. Other goals were application and direct application for educational purposes in the science of molecular gastronomy. FeranAdria, Heston Blumenthal, Thomas Keller, and Harold McGee have made four key points in their statement on the New Culinary Statement:
- Three basic principles guide our cooking: exceptionalism, openness and integrity.
- Our cuisine respects tradition, builds on it, and together with tradition is part of the on-going evolution of our craft.
- We embrace innovation – new substances, techniques, apparatus, information as long as they contribute to the development of culinary arts.
- We believe that cooking can have a profound effect on people, and that is essential for truly advancing the development of this potential in a spirit of collaboration and knowledge sharing.
We can summarize that molecular gastronomy has the task and goal of:
- Explores definitions (modelling) and refines culinary (collection, tests, analyse);
- Explores the “artistic” components of cooking;
- Explores the social component of cooking (This, 1999.).
In 1970. there was a real expansion of French cuisine through the organization’s brigade system, where all of Eskofies cooking principles were applied under the name “Nouvelle Cuisine”.Nouvelle is not just a theoretical concept, its practical application has led to the ,Pyramid“ restaurant, the first in Paris, in 1993., to have a flattering three-star award given by the Michelle’s Guide. Even today, culinary art is shaped by teaching, through students, today’s Chefs, including the famous Paul Bocuse, who was continuous to surprise the world with the advances he contributes, and especially by investing in the potential of young people through his Institute (www.institutpaulbocuse.com).
Bocuse was initially one of the strongest critics, pointing out that bosses use tricks when serving small portions. Some believe that the new system has made room for abuse, worrying a little about health and putting the kitchen in the negative context, as an excuse for “expensive small portions”.
The year 1972 was crucial for the further development of nouvelle cuisine, when Michelle Guérardteamed with food critic Henri Gault and journalist Christian Mile for public promotion, demonstrating and adapting to traditional cuisine at the time. All united in 1976 in La Grande Cuisine Minceur, which is a subclass of nouvelle cuisine and which promotes cooking without many calories. The principles underlying this new movement are the freshness of foods, harmony and symphony of taste, lightness, the use of basic and simple cooking methods.
Nouvelle cuisine inspired the creation of a wide range of technical innovations such as: cook-freeze, cook-chill, and espresso coffee machines, but also contributed to expanding vision and getting out of the box by creating various fusion kitchens, of which the most famous Spanish cuisine, as a fusion of multiple cuisines and in which the idea of a direction was born, which we call “molecular gastronomy.”