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Flavour, gout, taste, gustation is a synthetic sensation of the senses in eating and drinking, caused by taste, smell, touch, hearing, visual and trigeminal stimulus. Papilla is only one of the initiators of the aroma detection, but not the final one, because the taste system itself is a complex category, which only detects the sense of taste, not taste as a system (aroma). This suggests that they are called papillae sapictive because they detect taste.
Thus cites Savarin: “The Creator, forcing humanity to eat in order to perish, is called to eat with appetite and rewarded with pleasure.”
Sensory analysis scientists usually refer to olfaction through the nostrils as “orthonasally” perception, while molecules that pass through the oral cavity are referred to as “retro nasal” perception of taste, which is called taste by the layman, and more properly by aroma.
Much research is needed before they will be able to understand the extent to which unpleasant odours are experienced, depending on whether they are ortho or retro nasally, when the initial odour (orthonasally) may be quite different from its taste – one such an example that is well known to gourmets is that the odour of the fruit is durian, which has a very unpleasant odour when smelled orthonasally, gives a very pleasant taste in the mouth when the aroma is detected retro nasally.
The author also questions the perception of aroma to be misleading when a dish is not only perceived separately ortho and retronasally, but also when the visual representation does not give a true picture of taste – an example is a dish that is not served in an attractive way or has a texture that is not tempting (example puffs) and the taste can be mesmerizing. Although a positive evaluation of the attractiveness and attractiveness of a dish has been found to have a positive and stimulating effect on the positive judgment of a food dish, the question is how does negative visual perception affect the aroma experience?


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Even today, after more than a century, in 1908. at the Kikunae Ikeda, Tokyo Imperial University, glutamate (an ionized form of amino acid, glutamic acid) was found to produce a special feeling, unrecognized by the receptors of the other four flavours, a fact of existence. The fifth sense of taste is not yet a generally known fact. In February 2000. psychologists at the University of Miami recognized one of the receptors, associated with a taste called umami. sense of taste
Taste detection is important because it signals satiety. Saliva is a natural lubricant made up of hundreds of molecules, such as enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, antibodies and germs that initiate digestion in the oral cavity, helping to start digestion of food, where later gastric acid hydrolyses or dissolves food in the stomach. Astringency is a characteristic of molecules that binds to salivary proteins and suppresses their ability to lubricate, which gives a sense of dryness in the mouth. When wine is consumed, if you take a sip of very strong wine, it stirs in the mouth for a few seconds, then spills into a glass, a precipitate is observed – the proteins bound to tannins. sense of taste activated
An amazing and almost fascinating fact is the possibility of taste receptors, which recipe sweet, sour, salty, bitter or umami, and where ligands bind to a specific trans membrane molecule receptor and transduce a signal to the brain, where 10,000 pores manage to distinguish thousands of different flavours without error, found in art delicacies saved by chefs of modern cooking.


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  • Sweet: glucose, fructose, aspartame
  • Salt: sodium chloride, ammonium chloride
  • Acid: Acid lactic, acetic and phosphoric acid
  • Bitter: quinine, caffeine and phenols
  • Umami: monosodium glutamate. 

    flavourIn the past ten years, all receptors for bitter, sweet and umami have been identified. All of these receptors are a subclass of the G-protein receptor superfamily, where T1R2-T1R3 are responsible for sweet readings, while T1R1-T1R3 are responsible for umami.


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The overall aroma of a dish is determined by a combination of many stimuli in the mouth and nose. In humans, the sensory nerve endings of the branches of the trigeminal nerve, which is most responsible for the process of detecting food resistance, are found in the epithelium of the nose and oral cavity. Signals are transmitted by this nerve to the centre of the brain and are responsible for the detection of foods, and accordingly, we also sometimes call hemesthesia a “trigeminal sense.” Recently, the tongue has been found to have fatty acid receptors composed of long chains of unsaturated acids. For trigeminal effects, some compounds are known, such as eugenol (cloves), menthol, capsaicin, piperine (from peppers), ethanol, sodium bicarbonate, and many others.


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Research shows that only 20% of aroma comes from taste and as much as 80% from aroma, which is not surprising given that there are about 5-10 million smell receptors in the nose, while only 10,000 detect taste.
While taste buds in the mouth detect small molecules dissolved in a liquid, odour receptors detect molecules in the air. The receptor range provides wide sensitivity to volatile molecules. Some of the most potent thiols can be detected at low concentrations as 6 × 107 molecules / ml of air (2-propene-1-thiol), while ethanol requires about 2 × 1015 molecules / ml of air.

sense of smell
Tannins are molecules of plant matter, including trees that have the ability to combine with protein and iron. For example, a piece of gelatine soaked in strong tea (a solution containing tannins) causes the tea to become cloudy. Also, some aromas can be created to resemble, just like vanilla, a molecule that is present in vanilla, but also forms when alcohols are left to ripen in oak barrels, where ethyl alcohol reacts with lignin from wood, hence the taste of the vanilla of some old alcohol.
The way sensors recognize molecules odour is by “combinatorial code receptors”, that is, one receptor recognizes a number of odours.
Like pleasant smells, it is in human genes to recognize the unpleasant, as a kind of warning, danger around us. As this sense develops throughout life, where the brain remembers and distributes unfamiliar scents to recognize them, so too does sensitivity decrease in old age, especially after the seventh decade of life.


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Texture is defined as the sensory and functional manifestation of the structural, mechanical and surface properties of food, revealed through the senses of sight, hearing, touch and kinaesthetic”. It is not only the senses of touch that give a sense of the texture of the food: the sense of sight is active in the perception of the texture when we see the food, and in addition, audition, somesthesis and kinesthesis are active during the consumption of food. texture
Geometric properties are those related to the size, shape, and arrangement of particles in a product, while surface properties are related to the sensations created by humidity and / or fat content.

We can conceptualize the sense of touch from two points of view:Exterior andInternal.
External perception is actually our impression when using the outer parts of the skin, most often these are hands, where when we touch, we have a feeling on our fingers whether the texture is powdery, gel, rough, oily and the like, which gives us a positive or negative connotation at understanding the aroma.

Take potato chips as an example, when touched we realize that the texture is slightly crunchy, greasy, brittle, and that’s what we expect. Inner perception is the contact of food with the taste apparatus, ranging from lips, tongue, teeth, to the entire oral cavity with the palate, the inside of the cheeks, and more. This gives rise to a more detailed understanding of texture as such and a final idea of it. textures
Food provides a multimodal stimulus – it excites more than one sensory system. Research shows that although texture may be decisive for taste, its perception captures several senses, at least including sight, olfactory, taste sense, and sense of touch.


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From cold parfaits in summer to warm tea in winter, temperature is part of our perception of food, and it is logical that there are expectations about temperatures when serving most foods, drinks and beverages, where inappropriate temperatures lead to reduced taste satisfaction or even unpleasant consumption. The nerve endings in the mouth are responsible for the detection of temperature, and the thermal information is encoded in ion channels, of which there are six different thermo sensitive ion channels with different thresholds of thermal activation. temperatureTemperatures above 43 °C and below 15 °C are accompanied by a sensation of pain, but this upper limit is daily disturbed in almost every person when consuming hot drinks above the pain limit and harmful tissue temperatures, where this phenomenon was investigated in a study of drinking behaviour coffee, where the temperature of the mouth during drinking was measured, where it was shown that there was minimal cooling during drinking and swallowing, but it was concluded that warm coffee was not kept in the mouth long enough to warm the epithelial surfaces so much as to cause pain or tissue damage.
The receptors of temperature changes in the mouth are very precise; under experimental conditions changes in temperature and about 1°C are felt, but the ability to sense change is asymmetric – increasing temperatures are felt much faster than decreasing.


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When a substance is the subject of constant stimulus, becomes less sensitive to the same, for example, when the sucrose solution is held stationary in the mouth, after a few minutes, it will become tasteless. When we talk about a note contained in a dish, we will quickly become saturated and characterize the meal as ‘boring’ because it loses its flavour if we are exposed to the same taste or aroma for an extended period of time, thus diversity becomes the spice of life. adaptation and supression
In recognition and application of the phenomenon of adaptation, Heston Blumenthal has created dishes that continuously provide a wide range of stimulants and one such example served in Fat Duck is cauliflower risotto. The central idea is to prepare vegetables, which are considered by many to be quite uninteresting, to prepare a dish that has a wide range of different textures and flavours that constantly stimulate the brain, thus preventing any adaptation.


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Colour is defined as the combination of visually understood information contained in light emitted or scattered by a product. Other concepts related to the sensory evaluation of the colour of certain food products, such as colour hue, lightness and luminosity, as well as transparent, opaque and transparent.

sense of vision

Product colour is the visual effect of the subjective feeling of the beholder and each coloured substance selectively absorbs the light of the visual part of the spectrum. Pure colours, defined by only one wavelength, do not exist. Illumination is an optical colour quality and is a measure of colour intensity and indicates average reflectance by range, where white is the highest and black is the lowest, where increasing brightness defines product darkness and vice versa.


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sense of hearing

The ear is an organ that is used to collect sounds from the outside and emits through the ducts and drum those into the inside of the ear. Some people have more pronounced auditory abilities and have the prerequisite to hear side-effects when chewing, breaking, crunching, etc. product. In gastronomy, this sensation is unjustifiably neglected, even in sensory analysis of the product, while in molecular gastronomy, this sense is much used; where consumers release sounds that stimulate the overall taste of the dish. Even Chef Andreas went a step further and made in conjunction with the Academy of Music, sound for every taste and depending on the dish in question, certain tunes are played.